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The battle of Crecy which pitted the English against the French in featured the early use of cannon which helped the long-bowmen repulse a large force of Genoese crossbowmen deployed by the French.
The English originally intended to use the cannon against cavalry sent to attack their archers, thinking that the loud noises produced by their cannon would panic the advancing horses along with killing the knights atop them.
Early cannon could also be used for more than simply killing men and scaring horses. English cannon were used defensively during the siege of the castle Breteuil to launch fire onto an advancing belfry.
In this way cannon could be used to burn down siege equipment before it reached the fortifications. The use of cannon to shoot fire could also be used offensively as another battle involved the setting of a castle ablaze with similar methods.
The particular incendiary used in these cannon was most likely a gunpowder mixture. This is one area where early Chinese and European cannon share a similarity as both were possibly used to shoot fire.
Another aspect of early European cannon is that they were rather small, dwarfed by the bombards which would come later.
In fact, it is possible that the cannon used at Crecy were capable of being moved rather quickly as there is an anonymous chronicle that notes the guns being used to attack the French camp, indicating that they would have been mobile enough press the attack.
These smaller cannon would eventually give way to larger, wall breaching guns by the end of the s. Documentary evidence of cannon in Russia does not appear until and they were used only in sieges, often by the defenders.
Later on large cannon were known as bombards, ranging from three to five feet in length and were used by Dubrovnik and Kotor in defence during the later 14th century.
Around the same period, the Byzantine Empire began to accumulate its own cannon to face the Ottoman Empire , starting with medium-sized cannon 3 feet 0.
By , the Ottomans used 68 Hungarian-made cannon for the day bombardment of the walls of Constantinople , "hurling the pieces everywhere and killing those who happened to be nearby.
There is no clear consensus of when the cannon first appeared in the Islamic world , with dates ranging from to the midth century. The cannon may have appeared in the Islamic world in the late 13th century, with Ibn Khaldun in the 14th century stating that cannon were used in the Maghreb region of North Africa in , and other Arabic military treatises in the 14th century referring to the use of cannon by Mamluk forces in and , and by Muslim forces at the Siege of Huesca in Spain.
However, some scholars do not accept these early dates. While the date of its first appearance is not entirely clear, the general consensus among most historians is that there is no doubt the Mamluk forces were using cannon by According to historian Ahmad Y.
He claims that this was "the first cannon in history" and used a gunpowder formula almost identical to the ideal composition for explosive gunpowder.
He also argues that this was not known in China or Europe until much later. Khan argues that it was the Mongols who introduced gunpowder to the Islamic world,  and believes cannon only reached Mamluk Egypt in the s.
Ibn Khaldun reported the use of cannon as siege machines by the Marinid sultan Abu Yaqub Yusuf at the siege of Sijilmasa in These balls are ejected from a chamber … placed in front of a kindling fire of gunpowder; this happens by a strange property which attributes all actions to the power of the Creator.
Its interpretation has been rejected as anachronistic by some historians, who urge caution regarding claims of Islamic firearms use in the — period as late medieval Arabic texts used the same word for gunpowder, naft, as they did for an earlier incendiary, naphtha.
The Ottoman Empire made good use of cannon as siege artillery. Sixty-eight super-sized bombards were used by Mehmed the Conqueror to capture Constantinople in Jim Bradbury argues that Urban, a Hungarian cannon engineer, introduced this cannon from Central Europe to the Ottoman realm;  according to Paul Hammer, however, it could have been introduced from other Islamic countries which had earlier used cannon.
The Ottomans also used cannon to control passage of ships through the Bosphorus strait. The similar Dardanelles Guns for the location were created by Munir Ali in and were still in use during the Anglo-Turkish War — Fathullah Shirazi, a Persian inhabitant of India who worked for Akbar in the Mughal Empire , developed a volley gun in the 16th century.
While there is evidence of cannon in Iran as early as they were not widespread. The Javanese Majapahit Empire was arguably able to encompass much of modern-day Indonesia due to its unique mastery of bronze-smithing and use of a central arsenal fed by a large number of cottage industries within the immediate region.
Documentary and archeological evidence indicate that Arab traders introduced gunpowder, gonnes, muskets , blunderbusses , and cannon to the Javanese, Acehnese , and Batak via long established commercial trade routes around the early to mid 14th century.
Javanese bronze breech-loaded swivel-guns, known as cetbang or lantaka , was used widely by the Majapahit navy as well as by pirates and rival lords.
This event led to near universal use of the swivel-gun and cannon in the Nusantara archipelago. Cannon derived from cetbang can be found in Nusantara, among others were lantaka and lela.
Most lantakas were made of bronze and the earliest ones were breech-loaded. There is a trend toward muzzle-loading weapons during colonial times.
Portuguese and Spanish invaders were unpleasantly surprised and even outgunned on occasion. Majapahit-era cetbang cannon were further improved and used in the Demak Sultanate period during the Demak invasion of Portuguese Malacca.
During this period, the iron , for manufacturing Javanese cannon was imported from Khorasan in northern Persia.
The material was known by Javanese as wesi kurasani Khorasan iron. Duarte Barbosa ca. They make many one-pounder cannon cetbang or rentaka , long muskets, spingarde arquebus , schioppi hand cannon , Greek fire , guns cannon , and other fire-works.
Every place are considered excellent in casting artillery, and in the knowledge of using it. Cannon were used by the Ayutthaya Kingdom in during its invasion of the Khmer Empire.
Saltpeter harvesting was recorded by Dutch and German travelers as being common in even the smallest villages and was collected from the decomposition process of large dung hills specifically piled for the purpose.
The Dutch punishment for possession of non-permitted gunpowder appears to have been amputation. Imported from Arabia , and the wider Islamic world, the Adalites led by Ahmed ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi were the first African power to introduce cannon warfare to the African continent.
The conflict proved, through their use on both sides, the value of firearms such as the matchlock musket , cannon, and the arquebus over traditional weapons.
While previous smaller guns could burn down structures with fire, larger cannon were so effective that engineers were forced to develop stronger castle walls to prevent their keeps from falling.
By the 16th century, cannon were made in a great variety of lengths and bore diameters, but the general rule was that the longer the barrel, the longer the range.
Consequently, large amounts of gunpowder were needed to allow them to fire stone balls several hundred yards.
Henry II of France opted for six sizes of cannon,  but others settled for more; the Spanish used twelve sizes, and the English sixteen.
Instead of the finely ground powder used by the first bombards, powder was replaced by a "corned" variety of coarse grains.
This coarse powder had pockets of air between grains, allowing fire to travel through and ignite the entire charge quickly and uniformly.
The end of the Middle Ages saw the construction of larger, more powerful cannon, as well as their spread throughout the world. As they were not effective at breaching the newer fortifications resulting from the development of cannon, siege engines —such as siege towers and trebuchets —became less widely used.
However, wooden "battery-towers" took on a similar role as siege towers in the gunpowder age—such as that used at Siege of Kazan in , which could hold ten large-calibre cannon, in addition to 50 lighter pieces.
These new defences became known as bastion forts , after their characteristic shape which attempted to force any advance towards it directly into the firing line of the guns.
By the end of the 15th century, several technological advancements made cannon more mobile. Wheeled gun carriages and trunnions became common, and the invention of the limber further facilitated transportation.
Even with this many animals pulling, they still moved at a walking pace. Due to their relatively slow speed, and lack of organisation, and undeveloped tactics, the combination of pike and shot still dominated the battlefields of Europe.
Innovations continued, notably the German invention of the mortar , a thick-walled, short-barrelled gun that blasted shot upward at a steep angle.
Mortars were useful for sieges, as they could hit targets behind walls or other defences. Setting the bomb fuse was a problem.
This often resulted in the fuse being blown into the bomb, causing it to blow up as it left the mortar. Because of this, "double firing" was tried where the gunner lit the fuse and then the touch hole.
This, however, required considerable skill and timing, and was especially dangerous if the gun misfired, leaving a lighted bomb in the barrel.
Not until was it accidentally discovered that double-lighting was superfluous as the heat of firing would light the fuse. Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden emphasised the use of light cannon and mobility in his army, and created new formations and tactics that revolutionised artillery.
He discontinued using all 12 pounder—or heavier—cannon as field artillery, preferring, instead, to use cannon that could be handled by only a few men.
One obsolete type of gun, the "leatheren" was replaced by 4 pounder and 9 pounder demi-culverins. These could be operated by three men, and pulled by only two horses.
Gustavus Adolphus's army was also the first to use a cartridge that contained both powder and shot which sped up reloading, increasing the rate of fire.
Each regiment was assigned two pieces, though he often arranged them into batteries instead of distributing them piecemeal. He used these batteries to break his opponent's infantry line, while his cavalry would outflank their heavy guns.
At the Battle of Breitenfeld , in , Adolphus proved the effectiveness of the changes made to his army, by defeating Johann Tserclaes, Count of Tilly.
Although severely outnumbered, the Swedes were able to fire between three and five times as many volleys of artillery, and their infantry's linear formations helped ensure they didn't lose any ground.
Battered by cannon fire, and low on morale, Tilly's men broke ranks and fled. In England cannon were being used to besiege various fortified buildings during the English Civil War.
Nathaniel Nye is recorded as testing a Birmingham cannon in and experimenting with a saker in Around this time also came the idea of aiming the cannon to hit a target.
Gunners controlled the range of their cannon by measuring the angle of elevation, using a "gunner's quadrant. It was only in the years prior to World War I that new works began to break radically away from his designs.
By the end of the 18th century, principles long adopted in Europe specified the characteristics of the Royal Navy 's cannon, as well as the acceptable defects, and their severity.
The United States Navy tested guns by measuring them, firing them two or three times—termed "proof by powder"—and using pressurized water to detect leaks.
The carronade was adopted by the Royal Navy in ; the lower muzzle velocity of the round shot when fired from this cannon was intended to create more wooden splinters when hitting the structure of an enemy vessel, as they were believed to be more deadly than the ball by itself.
The guns were, therefore, easier to handle, and also required less than half as much gunpowder, allowing fewer men to crew them.
As a result, the classification of Royal Navy vessels in this period can be misleading, as they often carried more cannon than were listed.
Cannon were crucial in Napoleon 's rise to power, and continued to play an important role in his army in later years. When over 25, royalists led by General Danican assaulted Paris, Paul Barras was appointed to defend the capital; outnumbered five to one and disorganised, the Republicans were desperate.
He ordered Joachim Murat to bring the guns from the Sablons artillery park; the Major and his cavalry fought their way to the recently captured cannon, and brought them back to Napoleon.
As the battlefield was muddy, recoil caused cannon to bury themselves into the ground after firing, resulting in slow rates of fire, as more effort was required to move them back into an adequate firing position;  also, roundshot did not ricochet with as much force from the wet earth.
Eventually, the French ceased their assault, after taking heavy losses from the British cannon and musket fire. In the s and s, greater emphasis was placed on the accuracy of long-range gunfire, and less on the weight of a broadside.
The carronade, although initially very successful and widely adopted, disappeared from the Royal Navy in the s after the development of wrought-iron-jacketed steel cannon by William Armstrong and Joseph Whitworth.
Nevertheless, carronades were used in the American Civil War. Western cannon during the 19th century became larger, more destructive, more accurate, and could fire at longer range.
Another is the smoothbore pounder Napoleon , which originated in France in and was widely used by both sides in the American Civil War.
The practice of rifling —casting spiralling lines inside the cannon's barrel—was applied to artillery more frequently by , as it gave cannon projectiles gyroscopic stability, which improved their accuracy.
One of the earliest rifled cannon was the breech-loading Armstrong Gun —also invented by William Armstrong—which boasted significantly improved range, accuracy, and power than earlier weapons.
The projectile fired from the Armstrong gun could reportedly pierce through a ship's side and explode inside the enemy vessel, causing increased damage and casualties.
The superior cannon of the Western world brought them tremendous advantages in warfare. For example, in the First Opium War in China, during the 19th century, British battleships bombarded the coastal areas and fortifications from afar, safe from the reach of the Chinese cannon.
Similarly, the shortest war in recorded history, the Anglo-Zanzibar War of , was brought to a swift conclusion by shelling from British cruisers.
Cannon in the 20th and 21st centuries are usually divided into sub-categories and given separate names. Some of the most widely used types of modern cannon are howitzers, mortars, guns, and autocannon, although a few very large-calibre cannon , custom-designed, have also been constructed.
Nuclear artillery was experimented with, but was abandoned as impractical. December Learn how and when to remove this template message.
Main article: Luther's canon. Main article: Canon of Trent. See also: Protestant Bible. Main articles: Biblical apocrypha and New Testament apocrypha.
Main article: Development of the Old Testament canon. See also: Reception of Enoch in antiquity. Other western churches and movements that have a divergent history from Roman Catholicism, but are not necessarily considered to be historically Protestant, may also fall under this umbrella terminology.
Some Eastern Rite churches who are in fellowship with the Roman Catholic Church may have different books in their canons. Extra-canonical Old Testament books appear in historical canon lists and recensions that are either exclusive to this tradition, or where they do exist elsewhere, never achieved the same status.
These include the Deaths of the Prophets , an ancient account of the lives of the Old Testament prophets, which is not listed in this table.
It is also known as the Lives of the Prophets. Another writing not listed in this table entitled the Words of Sirach —which is distinct from Ecclesiasticus and its prologue—appears in the appendix of the Armenian Zohrab Bible alongside other, more commonly known works.
Some Protestant Bibles include 3 Maccabees as part of the Apocrypha. However, many churches within Protestantism—as it is presented here—reject the Apocrypha, do not consider it useful, and do not include it in their Bibles.
The rest of the Book of Odes consists of passages found elsewhere in the Bible. However, a degree of uncertainty continues to exist here, and it is certainly possible that the full text—including the prologue and epilogue—appears in Bibles and Biblical manuscripts used by some of these eastern traditions.
Also of note is the fact that many Latin versions are missing verses — A more complete explanation of the various divisions of books associated with the scribe Ezra may be found in the Wikipedia article entitled " Esdras ".
Others, like Melito, omitted it from the canon altogether. This most likely refers to the book more commonly known as Joseph and Asenath.
An unknown book of Uzziah is also listed there, which may be connected to the lost Acts of Uziah referenced in 2 Chronicles The two versions of the prayer in Latin may be viewed online for comparison at the following website: BibleGateway.
While this likely refers to the account of Isaiah's death within the Lives of the Prophets, it may be a reference to the account of his death found within the first five chapters of the Ascension of Isaiah, which is widely known by this name.
The two narratives have similarities and may share a common source. Though it is not currently considered canonical, various sources attest to the early canonicity—or at least "semi-canonicity"—of this book.
The letter had a wider circulation and often appeared separately from the first 77 chapters of the book, which is an apocalypse.
Two manuscripts exist—a longer Greek manuscript with Christian interpolations and a shorter Slavonic version. There is some uncertainty about which was written first.
Extra-canonical New Testament books appear in historical canon lists and recensions that are either distinct to this tradition, or where they do exist elsewhere, never achieved the same status.
Some of the books are not listed in this table. These include the Prayer of Euthalius , the Repose of St.
Various sources also mention undefined Armenian canonical additions to the Gospels of Mark and John, however, these may refer to the general additions—Mark —20 and John ——discussed elsewhere in these notes.
A possible exception here to canonical exclusivity is the Second Apostolic Canons, which share a common source—the Apostolic Constitutions —with certain parts of the Orthodox Tewahedo New Testament broader canon.
The correspondence between King Agbar and Jesus Christ, which is found in various forms—including within both the Doctrine of Addai and the Acts of Thaddeus—sometimes appears separately see this list.
It is noteworthy that the Prayer of Euthalius and the Repose of St. John the Evangelist appear in the appendix of the Armenian Zohrab Bible.
However, some of the aforementioned books, though they are found within canon lists, have nonetheless never been discovered to be part of any Armenian Biblical manuscript.
They are as follows: Mark —20 , John — , the Comma Johanneum , and portions of the Western version of Acts. To varying degrees, arguments for the authenticity of these passages—especially for the one from the Gospel of John—have occasionally been made.
It exists today only in fragments. Some of the content within these individual sections may have developed separately, however. Especially of note is John Wycliffe 's inclusion of the epistle in his English translation, and the Quakers ' use of it to the point where they produced a translation and made pleas for its canonicity Poole's Annotations , on Col.
The epistle is nonetheless widely rejected by the vast majority of Protestants. The vast majority of Protestants embrace these four works as fully canonical.
Still today, the official lectionary followed by the Syriac Orthodox Church and the Assyrian Church of the East, present lessons from only the twenty-two books of Peshitta, the version to which appeal is made for the settlement of doctrinal questions.
It was also held in high regard by Clement of Alexandria. They are even classified as part of the New Testament canon within the body of the Constitutions itself.
Moreover, they are the source for a great deal of the content in the Orthodox Tewahedo broader canon. Nonetheless, their early authorship and inclusion in ancient Biblical codices, as well as their acceptance to varying degrees by various early authorities, requires them to be treated as foundational literature for Christianity as a whole.
Main article: Revelation Latter Day Saints. Main article: Standard works. Religion portal. Furthermore, some uncertainty remains concerning the exclusion of various smaller deuterocanonical writings from this canon including the Prayer of Manasseh, the traditional additions to Esther, the traditional additions to Daniel, Psalm , and portions of Säqoqawä Eremyas.
Moreover, in Antiquities , Josephus made two extra-Biblical references to Jesus, which have played a crucial role in establishing him as a historical figure.
Some books, though considered canonical, are nonetheless difficult to locate and are not even widely available in Ethiopia. While the narrower canon has indeed been published as one compilation, there may be no real emic distinction between the broader canon and the narrower canon, especially in so far as divine inspiration and scriptural authority are concerned.
The idea of two such classifications may be nothing more than etic taxonomic conjecture. A translation of the entire remaining Acts of Paul can be accessed online at Early Christian Writings.
In McDonald, L. The Canon Debate. Hendrickson Publishers. It is further defined as follows: " While it is tempting to think that such usage has its origins in antiquity in reference to a closed collection of scriptures, such is not the case.
Letter Vatican City. Retrieved 18 January Canon In Niehoff, M. Leiden: Brill. Journal of Theological Studies. April Journal of Bible and Religion.
Oxford University Press. Anchor Bible Dictionary , Vol. New York: Doubleday. How To Read The Bible. Jewish Publication Society. With many other scholars, I conclude that the fixing of a canonical list was almost certainly the achievement of the Hasmonean dynasty.
Jewish Encyclopedia. Citing private communication with Emanuel Tov on biblical manuscripts : Qumran scribe type c. With the destruction of the Temple and the state the Sadducees as a party no longer had an object for which to live.
Translated by Bowman. October Bible Review. In The Catholic Encyclopedia , ed. Taylor Marshall. Retrieved 1 December Attributed to Albert Sundberg's Harvard dissertation.
Justin Martyr. First Apology. The Canon of the New Testament. The question whether the Church's canon preceded or followed Marcion's canon continues to be debated.
Origin of the New Testament. Adversus Haereses. Turning Points. Baker Academic. In de Jonge, H. The Biblical Canons. Leuven University Press.
The Cambridge History of the Bible, Vol. Cambridge University Press. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Vol. New York: Robert Appleton Company. According to Eusebius' Church History 6.
A Brief History of Christianity. Blackwell Publishing. Harvard Theological Review. Catholic Encyclopedia.
It is true that no such declaration is to be found in the Canons of Nicaea, and it is uncertain whether St.
Byzantine Rome and the Greek Popes. Lexington Books. Harklean Version. The Harklean version is connected with the labors of Thomas of Harqel.
When thousands were fleeing Khosrou's invading armies, The project was founded by Philip E. Pusey who started the collation work in However, he could not see it to completion since he died in Note Revelation was added later in at the subsequent synod of Carthage.
The Canon of Scripture. Intervarsity Press. De Civitate Dei. Sanders Hendrickson, p. Augustine, De Civitate Dei Bible Research. Retrieved 21 May Robert Appleton Company.
Arbeiten zur Kirchengeschichte. Retrieved 11 April Prudentius [ c. This passage also presents a possible hint that old Latin translations were replaced with a new canonical version, perhaps alluding to the Vulgate, written by Jerome at the end of the fourth century.
By implication, this suggests that uncanonical texts were unlikely to be transcribed — an ideologically and authoritatively endorsed selection process that comes close to modern understandings of censorship.
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Created by potrace 1. Open Menu. Close Menu.The Cannons. Gefällt Mal. The Cannons are Sean Cannon and his sons James and followstamps.com play Irish Folk songs and varied material, and have been. The Cannons. K likes. The Cannons are Sean Cannon and his sons James and followstamps.com play Irish Folk songs and varied material, and have been. The Cannons - Seán Cannon prägte mit seiner Stimme dreißig Jahre lang den Sound der Irish Folk-Gruppe The Dubliners, welche sich in ihrer fünfzigjährigen. In der Kulturscheune in Salzgitter-Lebenstedt treten The Cannons am Samstag, Februar, ab Uhr im Rahmen der Reihe "Scheune. Korea began producing gunpowder in and were using cannons against Japanese pirates by the s. Materials evolved Kostenlose Solitär Spiele bamboo to wood to iron quickly enough for the Egyptian Mamelukes to employ the weapon against the Mongols at the battle of Ain Jalut inwhich Speedautocklicker the Mongol advance into the Mediterranean world. They go into battle against the Yellow Mongols who fight with bows and arrows.