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The inner circle has twelve medallions showing the twelve apostles. During later restorations, some of these original medallions were moved to circles farther out.
The next two circles depict celebrated martyrs and virgins. The fourth circle shows twenty angels, as well as saints important to Paris, notably Saint Denis , Margaret the Virgin with a dragon, and Saint Eustace.
The third and fourth circles also have some depictions of Old Testament subjects. The third circle has some medallions with scenes from the New Testament Gospel of Matthew which date from the last quarter of the 12th century.
These are the oldest glass in the window. Above the rose was a window depicting Christ triumphant seated in the sky, surrounded by his Apostles.
Below are sixteen windows with painted images of Prophets. The south rose had a difficult history. In it was damaged by the settling of the masonry walls, and not restored until — It was seriously damaged in the French Revolution of Rioters burned the residence of the archbishop, next to the cathedral, and many of the panes were destroyed.
The window was entirely rebuilt by Viollet-le-Duc in He rotated the window by fifteen degrees to give it a clear vertical and horizontal axis, and replaced the destroyed pieces of glass with new glass in the same style.
The window today contains both medieval and 19th century glass. In the s, after three decades of debate, it was decided to replace many of the 19th-century grisaille windows in the nave designed by Viollet-le-Duc with new windows.
The new windows, made by Jacques Le Chevallier , are without human figures and use abstract grisaille designs and colour to try to recreate the luminosity of the cathedral's interior in the 13th century.
The fire left the three great medieval rose windows essentially intact, but with some damage. The crypt of Notre-Dame is located below the nave and choir.
It should not be confused with the Archeological Crypt which is outside of the cathedral underneath the Parvis. It is not currently open to the public.
The organ was dedicated in In , Charles Mutin modified and added several stops ; in , an electric blower was installed.
An extensive restoration and cleaning was carried out by Joseph Beuchet in Between and , the mechanical action with Barker levers was replaced with an electric action by Jean Hermann, and a new organ console was installed.
In autumn , the electric combination system was disconnected due to short-circuit risk. A new console was installed, using the stop knobs, pedal and manual keyboards, foot pistons and balance pedals from the Jean Hermann console.
Between and , Bertrand Cattiaux and Pascal Quoirin restored, cleaned, and modified the organ. The current organ has stops ranks on five manuals and pedal, and more than 8, pipes.
Coupure Chamade. Sostenuto for all manuals and the pedal. Cancel buttons for each division. Replay system. The cathedral has ten bells. The bourdon , called Emmanuel, weighing at 13 tonnes  and tuned to F sharp, has accompanied major historical events since its 15th-century casting, [ citation needed ] such as the coronation of French kings, papal visits, and the end of conflicts such as World War I and World War II.
It also rings in times of sorrow like for the funerals of the French heads of state, tragedies such as the terrorist attacks on 11 September ,  and on special holidays like Christmas , Easter , and Ascension.
Four bells replaced those destroyed in the French Revolution. Placed at the top of the North Tower in , these ring daily for the Angelus and the chiming of the hours.
In , a carillon of three bells in the spire with two chimes that linked to the monumental clock were put in place and another three bells were positioned in the structure of Notre-Dame, so that they could be heard inside.
These are mute, although a project is planned to restore the Carillon to its former glory. The four bells that were put in place in are stored, as of February About a year later, a new set of eight bells for the North Tower of Notre-Dame was produced, along with a Grand Bell for the South Tower, just as there were originally before most were destroyed during the French Revolution.
The construction of bells was done with accuracy and precision to obtain the desired sound and the work was entrusted to two separate companies, one in France for the eight bells and one in Belgium for the Grand Bell.
Each of the new bells is named to pay tribute to saints and others who have shaped the life of Paris and the Notre-Dame. Emmanuel is accompanied by another large bell in the south tower called Marie.
At six tonnes and playing G Sharp, Marie is the second largest bell in the cathedral. Marie is also called a Little Bourdon petite bourdon or a drone bell because it is located alongside Emmanuel in the south tower.
Built in a foundry in The Netherlands, it has engravings distinctive from the other bells. The phrases "Je vous salue Marie," in French, and "Via viatores quaerit," in Latin, which mean "Hail Mary" where the bell gets its name from the Virgin Mary and "The way is looking for travellers".
Below the phrase is an image of the Baby Jesus and his parents surrounded by stars and a relief with the Adoration of the Magi.
It is in charge of the Small Solennel, which is similar to the Great Solennel except that the ringing peal starts with the bourdon and the eight bells in the north tower.
This rings only on 1 January New Year's Day at the stroke of midnight and it replaces Emmanuel for international events.
Like Emmanuel, the bells are used to mark moments such as the arrival at the Cathedral of the body of the deceased Archbishop of Paris.
In the North Tower, there are eight bells varying in size. Gabriel is the largest bell; it weighs four tonnes and plays an A sharp. Built in a bell foundry outside Paris in , it also chimes the hour through the day.
Like Emmanuel and Marie, Gabriel is used to mark specific events. It is used mainly for masses on Sundays in ordinary times and some solemnities falling during the week in the Plenum North.
It shows 40 circular lines representing the 40 days Jesus spent in the desert and the 40 years of Moses' crossing the Sinai.
Named after two saints: St. Anne , Mary's mother, and St. It has three circular lines that represent the Holy Trinity and three theological virtues.
Like Emmanuel, Marie and Gabriel, Anne-Genevieve is used to mark specific moments such as the opening of the doors to the Palm Sunday mass or the body of the deceased Archbishop of Paris.
Denis is the third largest bell in the North Tower and fifth largest bell in the cathedral. It is named after St. Denis , the martyr who was also the first bishop of Paris around the year ; it weighs 2 tonnes and plays a C sharp.
This bell includes the third phrase of the Angelus, "Behold the handmaid of the Lord". There are seven circular lines representing the gifts of the Holy Spirit and the seven Sacraments.
Marcel is the fourth largest bell in the North Tower and sixth largest bell in the cathedral. It plays a D sharp and weighs 1. It is named after Saint Marcel, the ninth bishop of Paris, known for his tireless service to the poor and sick in the fifth century.
The bell that bears his name has engraved upon it the fourth sentence of the Angelus, "Be it done unto me according to Thy word". Stephen , the first Christian martyr.
It plays an E sharp and weighs 1. It plays an F and weighs 1. It has two silver stripes above the skirt and one silver stripe above the nameplate.
This bell is used for weddings and sometimes chimes the hour replacing Gabriel, most likely on a chime called the Ave Maria.
Maurice is the seventh largest bell in the North Tower and second smallest in the cathedral. It is named after Maurice de Sully , the bishop of Paris who laid the first stone for the construction of the cathedral.
It includes the inscription, "Pray for us, Holy Mother of God". It plays a G sharp and weighs one tonne.
It has two gray stripes below the nameplate. This bell is used for weddings. Jean Marie is the smallest bell of the cathedral.
It plays an A sharp and weighs 0. It has a small gray stripe above the skirt. This bell is also used for weddings. The first clocks used at Notre-Dame were clepsydras.
These were used to tell the hours, which were marked by striking bells. In the 14th century Notre-Dame had two clepsydras running simultaneously, one in the cloister and one in the church itself.
A lay chamberlain was responsible to keep the clocks filled with water and to notify a churchwarden when it was time to strike the bells for the hour.
Such a job had to be ongoing 24 hours a day. In , MM. Guillot de Montjoye and Jean-Bernard de Vienne, canons and members of Notre-Dame's factory counsel , donated a mechanical clock to the cathedral.
The movement was installed in a glass cabinet in the gallery beneath the north rose window and rang three bells placed outside above the north portal.
Between and , the clock and the three bells were moved to the north tower. During Viollet-le-Duc's restoration in the 19th century, a new clock was made.
The Collin-Wagner movement, measuring two meters 6. This controlled four dormer clock faces visible on the transept roofs, two on each side. This clock was destroyed in the fire.
Olivier Chandez, who had been responsible for the upkeep of Notre-Dame's clock, described the find as "almost a miracle. It was nationalized on 2 November and since then has been the property of the French state.
Legislation from and clarified that cathedrals were maintained at the expense of the French government. This was reaffirmed in the law on the separation of Church and State , designating the Catholic Church as having the exclusive right to use it for religious purposes in perpetuity.
Notre-Dame is one of seventy historic churches in France with this status. The archdiocese is responsible for paying the employees, for security, heating and cleaning, and for ensuring that the cathedral is open free to visitors.
The archdiocese does not receive subsidies from the French state. A view of Notre-Dame from Tour Montparnasse. Virgin of Paris , 14th century.
Tympanum of the Last Judgment. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Notre-Dame of Paris. Cathedral in Paris.
Monument historique. Main article: Notre-Dame de Paris fire. Main article: Spire of Notre-Dame de Paris. See also: List of sculptures in Notre-Dame de Paris.
Gargoyles were the rainspouts of the Cathedral. Allegory of alchemy , central portal. This section needs additional citations for verification.
Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
Main article: List of bells in Notre-Dame de Paris. South rose window of Notre-Dame de Paris. Flying buttresses of Notre-Dame.
Close look of the details on the Tympanum of the Last Judgment France portal Catholicism portal Architecture portal. It appears that Bishop Sully entirely dug out the foundations of the early Christian basilica so as to found Notre-Dame on the bedrock under the island.
It is thought that the population of Paris grew from 25, in to 50, in , making it the largest European city outside of Italy.
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Retrieved 7 June Government of France. Senden Sie uns gern einen neuen Eintrag. Neuen Eintrag schreiben. Sprachausgabe: Hier kostenlos testen!
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